Tag Archives: Paganism

Polytheism is a vague term that needs classification

The etymology of the term “polytheism” is insufficiently descriptive, even as it attempts to establish a clear difference from monotheism. While it is by no means useless or misleading, especially in the classification of general religion, it can be of some disservice to serious polytheists who are interested in the extensive and complex history of polytheism, either for ritual practices or theoretical understanding. Being among that number, I have always found some sort of difficulty in expressing my socio-religious views to other polytheists or explaining historical, cultural and socio-political developments regarding various ideas in and forms of polytheism. I needed to introduce adjectives like “traditional” or “regional” or “indigenous” which did not go far enough. And it seemed wrong that there should be a term such as “animism” for a distinct yet simple worldview, but only one term to denote various and profound stages of polytheism’s worldview. Anthropologists often hold that polytheism arose after the discovery of agriculture, but this did not explain its development or forms. I noticed also that many misunderstandings and misinterpretations among practitioners and thinkers resulted from the vagueness of the term “polytheism”, perhaps giving an impression of the fragmented and weak state of the movement. Since worldview is of paramount importance in belief and reconstructionism, natural distinctions resulting from distinct historical traditions should be classified properly. To this end, I will introduce four new terms, inspired by social anthropology; in these the worldview is immediately apparent from the etymology of the term. Since religion is a socio-cultural phenomenon bounded by place, it seems reasonable to be guided by the anthropological terms that classify human societies, i.e. band, tribe, chiefdom (simple, complex), and state. For this reason, the etymology addresses the geographical scope of the society that held such a worldview, namely, village, city, confederation/union, and world/universe. Hence, kometheism, politheism, koinotheism, and cosmotheism. Below is a table in some detail. 


N.B. Three points to make. First, it might seem contradictory to place both monotheism and “polytheism” within cosmotheism, but this is necessary in view of the common origin of both systems of beliefs. Monotheism appeared during the evolution of a particular set of universalized ideas and syncretic circumstances within an expanding and competitive world grasping for an explanation of reality and hoping for an end to the pains of imperialism. It shouldn’t be thought that since monotheism denies all Gods except one, it is therefore of a totally different cast. The evolution of monotheism itself and the continuing the polytheistic remnants within it are proof against this rather simplistic opinion. Secondly, the four stages of polytheism are obviously not exclusive in descending order. Every cosmotheism will contain certain elements of the three previous worldviews, although not in a consistent or even manner. Lastly, I hope it will be understood that this is not an attempt to account for the development of Gods in material terms. Gods are real, but the earliest conceptions of them (before a tradition is made) depended on the nature of the experiences and lifestyle of those who first established the connection, as dictated by the natural environment and culture. The Gods, theoretically speaking, are not fully known to us. Animism is probably the closest we can reach because the natural and supernatural are equivalent, leaving little room for uncertainty as far as divine presence and experience is concerned. But polytheism later added new ideas and practices (mirroring changes in society) that can be compared to a mantle or cloak which covers the God, giving that God a more particular appearance or function for the convenience of distinct cultic practices and purposes, but simultaneously (because the God is covered) making that God somewhat less accessible to our conceptual understanding (hence the development of monotheism and later atheism).

Catholic priests in Poland burn Harry Potter books because of magic

55563349_2545076778835729_4074967805399662592_nThis story came out today from Poland. Even the fantasy of magic is not tolerated, because it has the dreaded appearance of polytheism. What makes it laughable is that this is happening while the Catholic Church is being shaken by endless scandals of sexual abuse. It also reminds us of the recent news of Catholic authorities getting rid of evidence relating to said abuse. But the Catholic Church ought to know something: It is too late. Tolkien was a Catholic long ago and mixed Paganism with Christianity in his famous novels, which have since inspired much imitation. Now society is changing and your domination is waning. JK Rowling will not burn in Hell eternally nor will the children & adults who read here works. Accept that paganism is returning without envious paranoia and rejoice that it won’t reciprocate for past crusades in like kind!

Essential distinctions in polytheism (part 1): Community v.s Individualism

hero-ring-of-trees-looking-upIt is by comparing and distinguishing that people come to know, understand and benefit from things. Distinction is often the essence of learning, for to deepen one’s knowledge in isolated things, without determining how much they differ, is to lose the eye in parts, without gaining the whole. Such a narrow view then leads to mistakes and misunderstandings which can always be better prevented than cured.

Because polytheism at the present time is undergoing a slow and hopeful regeneration, at the hands and in the hearts of many practitioners and well-wishers, often isolated by the force of various difficult circumstances, it becomes necessary to pursue and maintain discussions that can bring about some degree of a common view and good understanding, which are the seeds of community. However, since many polytheists have gone through hardships and isolation in their own experience, they may well be attached to personal views and practices that had supported them.  This is indeed the case, I would venture to say, with all of us, more or less; we are hardened and bold, because we have, like our ancestors, always been taunted and attacked for our ways. But although disagreements among us are bound to occur, nothing can be worse than to allow our personal attachments get the better of our common understanding. If there can’t be harmony, let there be discussion, and if discussion should fail, let there be negotiation. Continual isolation and differences may stifle our budding growth, or what is actually worse, raise a weak and deformed tree.

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